Rail passengers are set to suffer fresh travel disruption over the next few days due to more strikes in long-running disputes over pay, jobs and conditions.
Train companies are warning that services will be “severely reduced” because of industrial action by drivers and other workers.
Members of the drivers’ union Aslef will walk out on Wednesday and 3 June, while the Rail, Maritime and Transport union (RMT) has called a strike on 2 June.
Passengers are being advised to plan ahead and check the times of first and last trains.
Read more on train strikes:
Which services will be affected by industrial action this week?
Mick Whelan, general secretary of Aslef, told the PA news agency there was “no waning in enthusiasm” from train drivers to continue taking industrial action.
He said: “We are determined to get a resolution and remain in this for the long haul.
“It is time for the government to step back from interference which is preventing a deal – drivers, in line with other workers, deserve a pay rise after four years without one and inflation running over the last 12 months north of 10%.”
The strikes will affect 15 train companies, with services due to start later and finish much earlier than usual – typically between 7.30am and 6.30pm.
On the RMT strike day, around half of the network will shut down, with around 50% of normal services running.
On Aslef strike days, around 40% of trains will be running but there will be wide regional variations, with some operators running no services at all.
It is likely that evening services on some lines will be affected on the days before each strike and the mornings following strikes.
Aslef will also start an overtime ban at 15 train operating companies on 1 June that could cause disruption, especially in and out of London.
The industrial action will affect football fans travelling to London for the FA Cup final between Manchester City and Manchester United on Saturday at Wembley Stadium.
Fans wishing to travel to the game by train from Manchester have been advised not to attempt to do so on the day.
There will be a limited service on Friday due to the RMT industrial action.
A Rail Delivery Group (RDG) spokesperson said: “The upcoming rail strikes called by the Aslef and RMT leadership will not only affect our passengers’ daily commute but will also impact those travelling to and from the FA Cup final and other events across the country, causing disappointment and frustration for tens of thousands of people.
“It will also inconvenience families who have been looking forward and have planned their half-term holidays. It will also further burden our people who have already lost thousands of pounds at a time of financial strain.”
The unions say they have not been given a pay offer it can recommend to their members and support for industrial action remains strong among workers as well as the public.
Aslef says train drivers have not had a pay rise for four years.
Both unions claim the government is preventing the train companies making an acceptable offer, which ministers deny.
A Department for Transport spokesperson said: “The government has facilitated a fair and reasonable pay offer, now union leaders must do the right thing and put this to their members.”